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Каждый язык в основном состоит из слов.

Как-то Полоний спросил Гамлета: "What do you read, my lord?" (что вы читаете, мой господин?), на что тот с бросил: "Words, words, words". Простим принцу раздражение, поскольку, как выяснилось далее, то были "slanders" (злословие, но во множественном числе, чего трудно добиться в русском языке). А любое злословие, особенно многословное, трудно охватить единым взглядом.

К счастью, великие умы изобрели инструмент, позволяющий наблюдать всю картину в целом. И, несомненно, этот инструмент может быть весьма полезен для расширения словарного запаса.

Это графический тезаурус - граф, своего рода сеть синонимов или антонимов. Следует отметить, что каждый из периферийных узлов этой сети в свою очередь может выступать как центральный узел своей собственной сети. А если продолжать рисовать узлы далее и далее, то чисто теоретически образованной из отдельных подсетей сетью можно накрыть весь словарный запас данного языка - задача под силу великим титанам пера, причисляемым к классикам, или нердам (nerds) от литературы.

В качестве примера рассмотрим подсеть синонимов с центральным узлом "burn":

"burn" - Graphic Thesaurus

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Таблично этот граф вместе с добавленными примерами можно представить в следующем виде:

be on fire flame a candle flame; a flame burns
glow the warm glow of the setting sun;
The bedside lamp glowed dimly.
flare The fire flared up again.
Rioting has flared up in several towns.
flicker The candle flickered a few times and then went out.
The stream flickered slightly in the moonlight.
go up in flames The helicopter went up in flames after hitting a power line.
give off light light I read by the light of the fire. He left a light on in the kitchen.
The flowers glowed brightly in the morning light. He stopped to light a cigarette.
ignite The candle ignited the plastic. events which ignited the war in Europe
kindle to kindle a fire;
A love of poetry was kindled in him by his mother.
incinerate All the infected clothing was incinerated.
For many years, solid waste was incinerated.
reduce to ashes The building was reduced to ashes during the First World War.
Their house was reduced to ashes by the fire.
scorch toast Tom was toasting his feet by the fire.
I had a piece of toast for breakfast.
sear The heat seared their skin.
Pain was searing through her.
The hot fat sears the bottom and gives a nice flavor to the bread.
char Roast the peppers until the skin begins to char and blister.
Marc's body was badly charred in the fire.
Car and bodies had been so badly charred that it was some time before they could be identified.
singe The flames had singed her hair.
The rug was singed by a piece of burning coal that had fallen from the fire.
brand Each cow was branded with the ranch’s logo.
A leading brand such as Toshiba.
Kids want to have Nike and Reebok and other top brands.
sting hurt He hurt his knee playing football.
How did you hurt your finger? It hurts my knees to run.
smart The smart kids get good grades and go off to college.
A smart black suit.
My eyes were smarting with the smoke.
tingle My body tingled all over and I had a terrible headache.
I don't know what to do and I've got this sort of tingling feeling.
bite Don't worry about the dog - he won't bite.
I sometimes bite my fingernails when I'm nervous.
pain She felt a sharp pain in her leg.
You won't feel any pain during the operation.
With a lot of pain and suffering.
shine shimmer The lake shimmered in the moonlight.
When he moved, his silk green shirt shimmered.
radiate Heat radiated from the glowing coals.
The sun radiates both warmth and light.
glimmer a weak glimmering light.
The glimmer of a candle.
There is a glimmer of hope on the horizon.
emit light Lamp emits light in a specific direction.
If you put electricity on them, they emit light.
give off light When an electron jumps from a higher floor to a lower one, it gives off light.
They give off more heat than light.

Из вышеприведенного примера видно, что слова, стоящие во вторых столбцах таблиц, более полно раскрывают многообразие значений слова "burn". Но это уже нюансы смысла, придающие языку большую колоритность и выразительность.

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